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Phantom UAV (Taranis) – Autopilot Set Up

 

Equipment Layout

Wiring Diagram

APM Flight Controller Firmware

Taranis Radio Set Up

  Mode Control

  Timer 1

  Timer 2

  Throttle Control

  Control Audio Volume with a Slider

  Elevons

  Rudder/Steering/Arm Motor

  Battery Monitor – FrSky FLVSS

  Geofence Control

APM Configuration Using Mission Planner Software

  Manual Control Check

  Flight Modes

  Radio Calibration

  Accelerometer Calibration

    Accelerometer Calibration

    Level Calibration

  Compass Calibration

  Plane Failsafe

    Failsafe Actions

    Failsafe Trigger Summary

    Failsafe Trigger Event – Transmitter Signal Loss (Throttle)

    Failsafe Trigger Event – Telemetry Loss from GCS

    Failsafe Trigger Event – GPS Signal Loss

    Failsafe Trigger Event – Low Battery Voltage

    Failsafe Trigger Event – Low Battery Charge

  PID Parameter Set Up

     Automatic Tuning

     PTCH2SRV_RLL Tuning

   Arming

   Sensor Testing

   Optional Hardware – Power Module

   Optional Hardware – 3DR Telemetry Radio

   Optional Hardware – Airspeed Sensor

     Calibration

   Optional Hardware – Stabilised Camera Gimbal

   Optional Hardware – Steering Control

     Enable Steering Control

     Configure Output Channel RC7

     Configure Steering Parameters

     Manual Steering Control

     Steering Alignment

     Tuning

   Throttle Control Parameters

   Take Off Set Up

     Throwing To Launch

     Take Off On Undercarriage

     Climb Rate

   Automatic Landing

 ESC Calibration

 

Previous Page -  Manual Flying                 

Next Page – Airworthy Check List

 

Divider

Equipment Layout

The following items are installed in the plane.

 

   APM APM HKPilot Mega V2.5 flight controller board.

   UBLOX GPS module.

   3DR 915MHz telemetry transmitter.

   Power module.

   Air speed sensor.

   FrSky X8R receiver.

   FrSky FLVSS battery monitor.

 

The receiver, APM board and the GPS are mounted on a 3mm thick balsa component board covered in reinforcing tape.

 The APM board is wrapped in static absorbing plastic. This provides some protection against RF interference. It also holds in place a small block of foam over the barometric sensor.

 

The video transmitting camera and the HD action camera both sit on a vibration absorbing platform on the canopy. The video transmitting camera sits on its own battery. The action camera uses its internal battery.

The battery sits in a plastic tray attached to the base of the instrument bay with adhesive backed Velcro. The battery slides into this tray under the component board and is secured with two loops of double sided Velcro.

Wiring Diagram

 

APM Flight Controller Firmware

Arduplane version 3.4.0 is the final version of firmware for the APM 2.5 Flight Controller. Development of the firmware has stopped because the APM board has reached its capacity.

The 3.4.0 release notes are here.

The release note in the arduplane 3.4.0 discussion blog is here.

The arduplane 3.4.0 discussion blog is here

Taranis Radio Set Up

Channel allocation

Channel

Function

1

Throttle

2

Left Elevon

3

Right Elevon

4

Rudder

5

Not used

6

Geofence reset

7

Geofence enable

8

Mode control

Mode Control

On the Taranis radio, to set up a 6 position switch as a mode switch, refer to Application Note 24.

Timer 1

Refer to Application Note 2 :Timer – Use a Switch to Reset, Pause and Run’.

Timer 2

Refer to Application Note 7: ‘Use a Timer To Record Accumulated Flight Time’.

Throttle Control

Refer to Application Note 3: ‘Throttle Disable with Sticky Throttle Option’.

Control Audio Volume with a Slider

Refer to Application Note 5: ‘Control Audio Volume With A Slider’.

Elevons

Elevon mixing is done in the transmitter. The left elevon is channel 2 and the right elevon is channel 3.

In the mixer, set the weights and sources as follows.

 

Channel Number

 

Weight

 

Source

 

Curve

 

Trim

 

Switch

Delay /

Slow

Mix Name

CH2

50

Ele

---

Elevon L

+= (Add)

50

Ail

---

CH3

50

Ele

---

Elevon R

+= (Add)

-50

Ail

---

 

On the Outputs screen, channel 2 direction is normal and channel 3 direction is reversed.

Elevons must also be selected on the Radio Calibration screen of Mission Planner here.

Rudder/Steering/Arm Motor

The rudder channel, channel 4, is used for steering the nose wheel and arming the motor.

This aircraft has no rudder.

 

Channel Number

 

Weight

 

Source

 

Curve

 

Trim

 

Switch

Delay /

Slow

Mix Name

CH4

100

Rud

---

Rudder

Battery Monitor – FrSky FLVSS

Refer to Application Note 19: ‘Voltage Sensor – FLVSS’

Geofence Control

On the Taranis radio, switch SC controls the geofence as follows.

Switch SC↑ is geofence off.

Switch SC- is geofence enabled.

Switch SC↓ is geofence enabled and reset.

Geofence Enable

The geofence enable channel in the Taranis is channel 7.

When channel 7 = -100%, the geofence is disabled. When channel 7 = 0 or +100%, the geofence is enabled.

 

The mixer controls channel 7 is set as follows.

 

Channel Number

 

Weight

 

Source

 

Curve

 

Trim

 

Switch

Delay /

Slow

Mix Name

CH7

100

SC

(Cstm) CV2

---

GFenceEn

 

CV2 is as follows.

 

GFence01

Geofence Reset

The geofence reset channel in the Taranis is channel 6.

When channel 6 = 0 or -100%, the geofence reset is disabled. When channel 6 =+100%, the geofence reset is enabled.

The mixer controls channel 6 as follows.

 

Channel Number

 

Weight

 

Source

 

Curve

 

Trim

 

Switch

Delay /

Slow

Mix Name

CH6

100

SC

(Cstm) CV3

---

GFenceRs

 

CV3 is as follows.

 

GFence02

Geofence Audio Files

Create these audio files and transfer them to the SD card folder SOUNDS / en.

 

 

Description

Audio File Name

 

Audio Message

Geofence off

gfencoff.wav

Geofence off.

Geofence on

gfencon.wav

Geofence on.

Geofence reset

gfencres.wav

Geofence reset.

 

Use these special functions to play the geofence files. For this example, SF11 through SF13 are used.

 

Function Number

Source

Function

Parameter 1

Parameter 2

Check Box

SF11

SC↑

Play Track

gfenceoff

1x

SF12

SC-

Play Track

gfenceon

1x

SF13

SC↓

Play Track

gfenceres

1x

Check Geofence Control

In each of the SC positions, check the channel 7 value, the channel 6 value and the audio announcement as described in this table

 

Switch SC

Position

Geofence

Control

Enable

(Channel 7)

Reset

(Channel 6)

Audio

Announcement

SC↑

Off

-100%

-100%

Geofence off.

SC-

Enabled

+100%

-100%

Geofence on.

SC↓

Enabled & reset

+100%

+100%

Geofence reset.

APM Configuration using Mission Planner Software

Mission Planner version 1.3.58 is used in the descriptions below.

Manual Control Check

On the Taranis radio, select Manual Mode using the 6 position switch.

In Manual Mode, the Taranis channels go straight to the aircraft outputs. In the Taranis radio on the Outputs screen, set normal or reverse for each channel so the throttle, ailerons and rudder/steering move correctly. On the Taranis Outputs screen, I set the channels as follow.

Channel 1 (Throttle) : Normal

Channel 2 (Left Elevon) : Reversed.

Channel 3 (Right elevon) : Normal.

Channel 4 (Rudder/Steering) : Reversed.

Flight Modes

The modes programmed into the Taranis radio above must now be set up in the APM. The modes are summarized in this table.

 

APM Mode No.

APM

Mode

 

Description

1

RTL

Return to launching place

2

Auto

Execute list commands

3

Loiter

Circle while holding altitude

4

FBWA

Sticks centred = level flight

5

Training

Not stabilized, roll and pitch limited

6

Manual

No flight assistance

 

Assigning modes to the mode numbers is done in Mission Planner on the ‘Config/Tuning’ page under ‘Flight Modes’. For each flight mode, select the mode name from the pull down menu. Press ‘Complete’ to write the modes into the APM.

 

MP FlightModes01

 

Check that the mode switch selects the correct mode on the ‘Flight Data’ screen. Select each of the 6 switch positions and check the display on the artificial horizon displays the correct mode.

Radio Calibration

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on radio calibration.)

Channel Range Calibration

The radio calibration procedure tells the APM what PWM ranges for each channel are sent from the transmitter.

Initially, the Radio Calibration is displayed as follows.

 

 

Calibration Procedure

 

Click ‘Calibrate Radio’.

These messages are then displayed.

Click OK.

Click OK.

 

Red range limits lines are displayed on each channel display.

 

 

Ensure each of the following channels is moved to their maximum and minimum ranges.

 

Roll (aileron),

Pitch (elevator),

Yaw (rudder),

Throttle,

Radio Channel 5 is not used.

Radio Channel 6 : switch SC (Geofence reset).

Radio Channel 7 : switch SC (Geofence enable).

Radio Channel 8 : switch S3 (Mode).

 

Press ‘Click when Done’

 

The following message is displayed.

 

 

Set the sticks as instructed and click OK.

 

 

The status shows Completed, the results are saved and the following window shows the channel ranges.

 

This completes the calibration procedure.

Stabilisation Control Check

In Mission Planner, connect to the APM. On the Initial Setup Screen select Mandatory Hardware – Radio Calibration.

On the Taranis radio, select Fly By Wire A (FBWA) Mode using the 6 position switch. In FBWA mode, the APM controls the outputs.

On the Radio Calibration screen, tick the Elevons box.

 

Roll the aircraft. Set the reversing of each elevon so they respond to hold the aircraft level.

Pitch the aircraft. Check that the elevens also respond to hold the aircraft level.

My aircraft is set as follows.

 

Accelerometer Calibration

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on ESC Calibration)

Accelerometer Calibration

Perform the accelerometer calibration using instructions in the Arduplane documentation.

 

 

Click ‘Calibrate Accel’ to start.

 

After each position, click ‘Click When Done’ until ‘Calibration successful’ is displayed.

1. Place the APM on a level surface.

2. Place the APM on its left side.

3. Place the APM on its right side.

4. Place the APM nose down.

5. Place the APM nose up.

6, Place the APM on its back.

Calibration successful.

Level Calibration

 

Click ‘Calibrate Level’ to start.

 

 

After 1 to 2 seconds, ‘Completed’ is displayed.

 

 

 

 

 

After level calibration and with the aircraft still in the level attitude, on the Flight Data screen check that the pitch is zero as shown here to the right.

 

 

Compass Calibration

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on compass calibration.)

On the Initial Setup screen, select Mandatory hardware then Compass.

 

Click APM2.5.

The parameters are displayed as follows.

 

 

Click ‘Live Calibration’.

The following window is displayed.

 

Click OK and the following window is displayed.

 

 

Point the autopilot north and rotate 360 degrees around the pitch axis. (Nose over tail.) Rotating around roll axis does not seem to be needed!

 

 

 

 

 

When complete, the following message is displayed.

 

 

Press OK and the calibration is complete.

Plane Failsafe

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on plane failsafe.)

Failsafe Actions

I have set the failsafe parameters as described in the following table.

 

PARAMETER

VALUE

UNITS

Comments

FS_SHORT_TIMEOUT

1.5

Seconds

Failsafe event must be present for this time before implementing ‘Short Action’.

FS_SHORT_ACTN

1

-

In GUIDED or LOITER mode, always enter CIRCLE mode.

In AUTO mode,

0 : Continue with mission.

1 :Enter Circle mode.

2 : Enter FBWA mode with zero throttle and level attitude to glide in.

3: Disabled

FS_LONG_TIMEOUT

20

Seconds

Failsafe event must be present for this time before implementing ‘Long Action’.

FS_LONG_ACTN

1

-

If in ‘Stabilisation’ mode, enter ‘RTL’ mode.

If in ‘Auto’ mode, and if FS_SHORT_ACTN = 1, then enter RTL.

If in ‘Auto’ mode, and if FS_SHORT_ACTN = 0 or 2,

0 : Continue with mission.

1 : Enter RTL mode.

2 : Enter FBWA mode with zero throttle.

 

The action chosen in the table above is described as follows.

 

In stabilisation modes (AUTO, GUIDED or LOITER), if a failsafe event is present for >1.5 seconds, CIRCLE mode is entered.

If the failsafe event is removed, then the previous stabilisation mode is resumed.

If the failsafe event continues for >20 seconds, then RTL mode is entered.

 

The target altitude used by the ‘RTL’ command is the parameter ALT_HOLD_RTL. Its units are centimetres and its value is 10,000. (100m)

 

Param ALT_HOLD_RTL

Failsafe Trigger Summary

Failsafe states can be entered by the following trigger events.

  1. Transmitter Signal Loss. If the throttle PWM value drops below the THR_FS_VALUE (950uS), transmitter signal loss is assumed.
  2. Telemetry Loss from GCS. Loss of MAVLink messages for more than FS_SHORT_ACTN  and/or FS_LONG_ACTN seconds.
  3. GPS Signal Loss. Change mode to DEAD RECKONING when GPS signal is lost for more than 20 seconds
  4. Low Battery Voltage. Change mode to RTL if the battery voltage is less than FS_BATT_VOLTAGE.
  5. Low Battery Charge. Change mode to RTL if battery charge remaining (mAh) is less than FS_BATT_MAH.

 

Failsafe Trigger Event – Transmitter Signal Loss (Throttle)

Transmitter Signal Loss Failsafe is called Throttle Failsafe.

Enable it by setting THR_FAILSAFE = 1. (0=Disabled, 1=Enabled)

Set the Receiver Throttle Failsafe PWM

The receiver must be set up so that when it loses signal, the throttle output PWM is less than the THR_FS_VALUE of 950uS. The following procedure sets the FrSky X8R receiver throttle failsafe PWM as required.

 

1. On the Taranis Model Setup screen under Internal RF, set the Failsafe Mode to Receiver.

2. On the Taranis Outputs screen, set the lower range limit to -120%. When the throttle stick is at minimum, the throttle PWM is 886uS.

 

3. On the FrSky receiver, press and release the F/S button to set the failsafe settings. The receiver LED flashes off twice then returns to continuously on.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Reset the throttle lower range limit back to -100%. When the throttle stick is at minimum, the throttle PWM is 988uS.

Check Transmitter Signal Loss

Turn on the Transmitter and the aircraft. Connect the GCS and monitor the mode.

With the mode in LOITER, turn off the transmitter. Check the APM mode changes to CIRCLE for 20 seconds, then to RTL.

Failsafe Trigger Event – Telemetry Loss from GCS

If the APM stops receiving MAVLink heartbeat messages for more than the FS_SHORT_TIMEOUT and/or the FS_LONG_TIMEOUT, then the FS_SHORT_ACTN and/or the FS_LONG_ACTN action(s) are triggered.

The GCS failsafe is enabled using the FS_GCS_ENABLE parameter. (0 = disabled, 1 = enabled)

 Failsafe Trigger Event – GPS Signal Loss

 If the GPS signal is lost for more than 20 seconds, then Dead Reckoning mode is used until the GPS signal is restored.

 Failsafe Trigger Event – Low Battery Voltage

If the battery voltage drops below FS_BATT_VOLTAGE, then the APM mode changes to RTL.

If FS_BATT_VOLTAGE = 0, battery voltage failsafe is disabled.

I have set FS_BATT_VOLTAGE = 0. (I use a FrSky FLVSS battery monitor with alarms in the Taranis instead.)

Failsafe Trigger Event – Low Battery Charge

If the battery capacity remaining is less than FS_BATT_MAH, then the APM mode changes to RTL.

If FS_BATT_MAH = 0, battery charge failsafe is disabled.

I have set FS_BATT_MAH = 0.

PID Parameter Set Up

From the Config/Tuning screen, select Basic Tuning to display the tuning parameters.

These are my current settings.

 

Automatic Tuning

In Autotune mode, the PID parameters of roll and pitch are set automatically when rapid full manual roll and pitch movements are made. At least 20 movements are required because each parameter is only changed by up to 5% after each movements. Changes are saved every 10 seconds.

AUTOTUNE_LEVEL controls how aggressive the tuning is to be. Default value = 6.

The air speed during autotune must be greater than ARSPD_FBW_MIN, currently set to 9 m/S.(32.4 kph)

Automatic Tuning Procedure

1. Start with NAVL1_PERIOD = 25.

2. From the GCS or the transmitter, select AUTOTUNE mode before taking off or during flight.

3. Roll the plane to the left and right with at least 80% rapid stick movement at least 20 times with about 2 second delay between movements.

4. Pitch the plane up and down with at least 80% rapid stick movement at least 20 times with about 2 second delay between movements.

5. Every 10 seconds, the autotune parameters are saved.

6. Set NAVL1_PERIOD = 18.

7. In AUTO mode, fly a rectangular mission and reduce NAVL1_PERIOD by 1 at a time until the turning rate is optimum.

PTCH2SRV_RLL Tuning

The PTCH2SRV_RLL parameter determines how much up elevator is added in turns to keep the nose level.

PTCH2SRV_RLL default value is 1.0.

PTCH2SRV_RLL Tuning Procedure

1. In FBWA mode, fly in a tight circle with aileron stick hard over and centred elevator.

2. If the plane gains altitude, reduce PTCH2SRV_RLL by .05 at a time to a minimum of 0.7.

3. If the plane loses altitude, increase PTCH2SRV_RLL by .05 at a time to a maximum of 1.5.

 

I set PTCH2SRV_RLL = 1.0.

Arming

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on arming.)

 

Arming parameters are set as follows.

 

 

Arming is allowed only in Manual mode and is requested in two ways.

1. Hold rudder to the left for two seconds with throttle at minimum, or

2. Press Arm on the GCS (Ground Control Station).

NOTE: Arming with the rudder requires left rudder because the rudder channel is reversed in the transmitter.

 

Disarming is allowed only in Manual mode and is requested in two ways.

1. Hold rudder to the right for two seconds with throttle at minimum, or

2. Press Disarm on the GCS (Ground Control Station).

NOTE: Disarming with the rudder requires right rudder because the rudder channel is reversed in the transmitter.

 

 

Parameter

Default Value

Set Value

Comments

ARMING _CHECK

0

1

Bitmask of checks required to pass before allowing arming.

0: none

1: all

2: barometer

4: compass

8: GPS lock

16: inertial sensors – accelerometers and gyros

32: not used

64: RC channels

128: board voltage

256: battery level

512: airspeed

1024: logging available

2048: hardware safety switch

4096: GPS configuration

ARMING_REQUIRE

1

1

0: disabled. Aircraft is armed on power up!.

1: THR_MIN PWM when disarmed

2: 0 PWM when disarmed

ARMING_RUDDER

1

1

Arming using full right rudder for several seconds.

0: disabled

1: enabled

 

Battery level check is used only if configured.

APM does not have a hardware safety switch and is not required.

Sensor Testing

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on sensor testing.)

On the Mission Planner Flight Data screen, any of the data items in the APM can be displayed on graphs in real time.

 

To display the graph of sensor data, tick the tuning box at the bottom of the page.

 

To display a list of all possible sensor data, double click the left mouse button anywhere on the graph.

Tick the box of the variable to be displayed on the graph.

The following table is a check list of the sensors.

 

Sensor

Parameter

Check procedure

Artificial horizon - Roll

roll

Roll the aircraft left and right. Check display shows roll angle.

Artificial horizon - Pitch

pitch

Pitch the aircraft up and down. Check display shows pitch angle.

Heading - Yaw

yaw

Yaw

Altitude

alt

Raise and lower aircraft. Check altitude shows change.

Air speed

airspeed

 

Acceleration – x axis (back, forward)

ax

Move aircraft forward and backward.

Acceleration – y axis (left, right)

ay

Move aircraft left and right.

Acceleration – z axis (up, down)

az

Move aircraft up and down.

Compass 1 field strength

magfield

Move a magnet close to remote compass. See graph below.

Compass 2 field strength

magfield2

Move a magnet close to on board compass. See graph below.

Magnetic field strength graph of compasses 1 & 2.

Moving a magnet close to the remote compass increases magfield from 500 to over 2000.

Moving a magnet close to the on board compass increases magfield2 from 560 to over 4000.

 

Optional Hardware – Power Module

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on power module configuration.)

 

The power module was sourced from UAV Robotics here.

In Mission Planner, select ‘Initial Setup’, ‘Optional Hardware’ then ‘Battery Monitor’ and set up as follows.

 

 

Optional Hardware – 3DR Telemetry Radio

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on Telemetry Radio Configuration.)

 

The radio Telemetry Kit 915MHz was sourced from Hobby King here.

This is compatible with the 3Drobotics 3DR Radio Set here.

The aircraft was connected according to the Quick Start Guide.

From the Initial Setup screen, select Optional Hardware then Sik Radio.

Disconnect the Mavlink connection. Press Load Settings. After a few seconds, the current configuration values are displayed as follows.

Here is my current configuration.

 

 

These parameters are stored in the local radio module and the remote radio module. (They are not stored in the APM.)

Ensure the following parameters are set.

Parameter

Value

Notes

Air Speed

64 kbps

Communication baud rate

ECC

Enabled

Error correction

Tx Power

20dBm

20dBm = 100mW

Duty Cycle

100%

Max % of time tx packets can be transmitted.

Mavlink

Mavlink

Raw Data : ??

Mavlink : Normal selection

Low Latency : Used for tablet based joysticks

LBT

0

Listen Before Talk is signal strength considered busy.

 

For two radios to communicate, the following must be the same at both ends of the link:

- radio firmware version

- AIR_SPEED

- MIN_FREQ

- MAX_FREQ

- NUM_CHANNELS

- NETID

- ECC setting

- LBT_RSSI setting

- MAX_WINDOW setting

Optional Hardware – Airspeed Sensor

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on airspeed sensor.)

 

The airspeed sensor was sourced from UAV Robotics, here

 

The airspeed sensor is connected to the A0 port on the APM board.

From the Initial Setup screen, select Optional Hardware then Airspeed.

Configure as follows.

 

 

Check operation on the Mission Planner Flight Data screen.

Calibration

To calibrate the airspeed sensor, in the parameter list set ARSPD_AUTOCAL = 1. The default value = 0.

If this is enabled then the APM automatically adjusts the ARSPD_RATIO parameter during flight, based on an estimation filter using ground speed and true airspeed. The automatic calibration saves the new ratio to EEPROM every 2 minutes if it changes by more than 5%.

During calibration, fly with frequent direction changes as in a loiter or normal circuit pattern. Set ARSPD_AUTOCAL = 0 after calibration

Leave the other parameters with their default values.

 

 

NOTE: Cover pitot tube when not in use. Remove cover after the APM has powered up and before flight.

Optional Hardware – Stabilised Camera Gimbal

Arduplane version 3.4 does not support camera control. It was removed in a previous version to make space for other features.

Optional Hardware - Steering Control

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on steering control.)

Once configured, automatic ground steering is enabled in stabilised modes (like FBWA and Auto) whenever the rudder and aileron sticks are centred and the aircraft is below GROUND_STEER_ALT (set here to 5m). Auto steering relies on a compass heading to determine direction. The compass heading is set when the rudder and aileron sticks are centred. Moving the rudder overrides the auto steering. Alignment of the nose wheel is critical to a straight take off.

 

Before an auto take off, in manual or FBWA mode taxi to align the aircraft to the take off direction. With the rudder and aileron sticks centred, select Auto mode. The current compass heading is used to steer the aircraft when it throttles up and starts moving until it reaches an altitude of 5m. Be ready to take manual control using the rudder stick if the aircraft veers off course!

Transmitter Configuration

Channel 4 is used to control the rudder and steering.

Enable Steering Control

Steering Control is enabled by setting the parameter GROUND_STEER_ALT to a non zero value. Below this altitude, the nose wheel is used for steering. Above this altitude, steering changes from the nose wheel to the rudder. GROUND_STEER_ALT is set to 5m.

 

Configure Output Channel RC7

The steering servo is connected to output channel RC7. To set the parameters for RC7, in Mission Planner on the Config/Tuning screen, display the Full Parameter Tree. Set RC7 parameters as shown here.

 

 

Parameter RC7_FUNCTION is set to 26 meaning ‘ground steering’. Refer to RC Output Mapping for more details.

Configure Steering Parameters

The steering parameters are shown here. All the values are set to those suggested by the Arduplane documentation except STEER2SRV_P which is set to the turning circle diameter, measured to be 4.3m.

 

Manual Steering Control

On the Taranis, select Manual Mode. Check that the rudder stick turns the nose wheel in the correct direction. If not, reverse channel 4 on the Taranis Outputs screen.

Steering Alignment

Taxi the aircraft along the ground and adjust the mechanical alignment of the nose wheel so that the aircraft goes in a straight line when the rudder stick is centred. Adjust the rudder trim in the transmitter to perform fine adjustment.

Tuning

Tune the ground steering in FBWA mode before trying an auto take off. Follow the tuning procedure described here.

Throttle Control Parameters

The throttle parameters are set as follows.

 

Throttle Params

 

The throttle setting for normal flight TRIM_THROTTLE is set to 55%. This throttle setting is used when there is no airspeed sensor.

 

Throttle Trim

 

Take Off Set Up

Throwing To Launch

‘Stabilise’ mode or ‘Auto’ mode keep the wings level after the aircraft is released making launching less demanding on the pilot.

If ‘Auto’ mode with a takeoff command in the command list is used, the aircraft can be launched by hand even without holding the transmitter. The aircraft will stabilise and climb automatically after leaving your hand.

The parameter TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD should be 0 for all hand launches.

 

No Auto Throttle Control

If the parameter TKOFF_THR_MINACC is zero, then the throttle starts immediately after ‘Auto’ mode is selected.

When no auto throttle control is used, these are the parameter values used.

 

PARAMETER

DEFAULT

SET VALUE

UNIT

TKOFF_THR_DELAY

0

0

0.1 sec

TKOFF_THR_MINACC

0

0

m/s/s

TKOFF_THR_MINSPD

0

0

m/s

TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD

0

0

m/s

 

Auto Throttle Control

If the parameter TKOFF_THR_MINACC is not zero, then the throttle is armed only after the time in TKOFF_THR_DELAY has passed and the GPS ground speed is above TKOFF_THR_SPD.

This feature is used when launching by hand

 

 

 

When auto throttle control is used, these are the parameter values used.

 

PARAMETER

DEFAULT

SET VALUE

UNIT

TKOFF_THR_DELAY

0

2

0.1 sec

TKOFF_THR_MINACC

0

15

m/s/s

TKOFF_THR_MINSPD

0

4

m/s

TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD

0

0

m/s

Take Off On Undercarriage

Throttle Control

The maximum throttle value during takeoff is set to the same as THR_MAX. See here for THR_MAX setting.

 

 

The maximum throttle slew rate during takeoff is set to the same as THR_SLEWRATE. See here for THR_SLEWRATE setting.

 

 

The TKOFF_ROTATE_SPD parameter is set to 0 m/s so it will rotate as soon as the air speed allows it.

The parameters TKOFF_TDRAG_ELEV and TKOFF_TDRAG_SPD1 are left at the default value 0 because they only apply to tail dragging configuration aircraft.

 

 Climb Rate

The Fly By Wire altitude change rate FBWB_CLIMB_RATE default value is used. It is 2.0 m/S.

 

FBWB Climb Rate

 

PARAMETER

DEFAULT

SET VALUE

UNIT

FBWB_CLIMB_RATE

2

2

m/S

 Automatic Landing

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on automatic landing.)

 

These are the landing parameters.

 

 

The LAND_PITCH_CD angle is set to zero so flaring is disabled because altitude measurement is not accurate enough without sonar or lidar rangefinder.

 

These are the key TECS landing parameters.

 

 

 

The TECS_LAND_SPDWGT parameter sets the priority between airspeed control versus height control.

The Landing Air Speed is set by the parameter TECS_LAND_ARSPD.

 

The glide slope is set by the ratio of the distance from the last waypoint to the landing point and the height difference between the last waypoint and the landing point. A recommended glide slope is a maximum of 10%.

ESC Calibration

(Refer here for Arduplane documentation on ESC Calibration)

The ESC is a 30A.

Incomplete

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